Abstract: The present paper deals withdetailed wood microstructure of 9 species belonging to six genera covering tribe Hippomaneae and Euphorbieae of the subfamily Euphorbiodeae (Euphorbiaceae). The study mainly focused on the systematic implication of wood anatomy to the subfamily, also ecological and evolutionary aspects were evaluated. Wood microstructure of the tribe Hippomaneae was found to be homogeneous considerably while Euphorbieae was heterogeneous to certain extent reflecting upon unnatural classification of the tribe. All the genera showed high vulnerability and mesomorphy reflecting adaptation to mesic environment. An identification key has been developed based on constant wood anatomical properties.