2015, VOLUME 2 ISSUE 2Pages: 127-133
Heavy metal and phytochemical screening of anti-jaundice and anti-malaria concoctions and genotoxicity assessment of the concoctions using Allium cepa assay
Oluwatosin A. Arojojoye*, Olajumoke O. Alao, Oluwabusayo A. Owoeye, Adekunle O. Adejuwon, Olusegun O. John-Dewole and Yetunde J. Jemiseye
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Increasing population world-wide is depending on herbal medicine as a source of primary health care. However, many plants used in traditional and folk medicine have been shown to be potentially toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic. In this study, the cytotoxic and genotoxic potentials of anti-jaundice and anti-malaria concoctions commonly used in Nigeria in treating jaundice and malaria were investigated using Allium cepa assay. The concoctions were also analysed for the presence of some heavy metals and phytochemicals. The roots of Allium cepa were exposed to 10%, 50% and 100% of both concoctions respectively for 96 hours for macroscopic and microscopic analysis and Allium cepasexposed to tap water served as control. The anti-jaundice and anti-malaria concoctions significantly (p<0.05) inhibited the root growth of Allium cepa when compared with control with EC50 values of 5% and 6% respectively. Both concoctions also caused concentration dependent decrease in mitotic index in Allium cepa cells and induced chromosomal aberrations like vagrant chromosome, multipolar anaphase, c-mitosis, sticky chromosomes and binucleus but there were no chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepas exposed to tap water. Phytochemical screening of both concoctions revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, cardenolides, flavonoids, tannins and anthraquinones and heavy metals like cobalt, cadmium and nickel were detected in the concoctions. The results of this study show the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the anti-malaria and anti-jaundice concoctions on Allium cepa.
Fig.: Heavy metal and phytochemical screening of anti-jaundice and anti-malaria concoctions and genotoxicity assessment of the concoctions using Allium cepa assay.