Abstract: Osyris lanceolata (Santalaceae), commonly known as African sandalwood is a multipurpose tree species widely spread in many of the sub-Saharan countries. We developed microsatellite markers for O. lanceolata to investigate its population genetics. Seventeen simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for O. lanceolata, of which 12 showed polymorphisms across the 84 individuals from three distant populations tested in the study.The results showed that the number of alleles per polymorphic locus ranged from (1–21), with a mean number of alleles per locus of 7.8. Expected and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 0.902 and 0.000 to 0.893 respectively. The markers that are presented here are the first microsatellite markers reported for O. laceolata and will be used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of this species. These 17 markers will be useful for better conservation and utilization of wild resources of O. lanceolate.