2019, VOLUME 6 ISSUE 3Pages: 345-364
Distribution pattern and multifarious use of weeds in rice agro-ecosystems of Bhadrak district, Odisha, India
T. Panda*, N. Mishra, S. Rahimuddin, B. K. Pradhan and R. B. Mohanty
*Chandbali College, Chandbali, Department of Botany, Chandbali- 756133, Odisha, India
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The weed flora associated with field crop of rice in Bhadrak district of Odisha, India is studied for a period of 2 years (June 2016 to May 2018) based on data obtained from field exploration and literature consultations. Data are collected using standard procedures. The weed association is comprised of 149 species related to 41 angiosperm families and one pteridophytic family. Angiosperms are distributed in 8 superorders and 19 orders. 36.5% of the species are recorded from the superorder Commelinids, 18.9% from Malvids, 14.9% from Lamids, 13.5% from Fabids and 10.1% from Companulids as per APG III classification. Order Poales (48), Gentianales and Asterales (14) each, Caryophyllales (13) and Fabales (11) accounts for about 67.6% of the species in the district. The predominant families are Poaceae and Cyperaceae. The dominant species are Ammannia baccifera, Alternanthera sessilis, Argemone mexicana, Croton sparsiflorus, Cyperus alopecuroides, Echinochloa crusgalli, Eleocharis dulcis, Fimbristylis miliacea, Hygrophila auriculata, Ludwigia hyssopifolia and Oryza rufipogon. Forty eight of the identified species are perennial and 101 annual species. The therophytes are represented by 45.6% of the life form spectrum. Habitat wise distribution analysis shows forbs share 88 species followed by grasses (29 species) and sedges (18 species) respectively. Of the reported species 37.6% are used for animal fodder, 29.5% for the treatment of various diseases and 7.4% for edible purposes. Considering the importance of weed flora in the rice fields, this research will hopefully improve the monitoring and management of weed flora in the study area and highlight their importance in maintaining ecosystem services which could be a valuable tool for its conservation, preservation and addition of the local biodiversity.