2021, VOLUME 8 ISSUE 1Pages: 71-80
Stem bark characteristics for determination of pharmacognostical properties of Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roth) Wall. ex A.DC. and Wrightia tomentosa Roem. et Schulta.
Pawan Kumar Ahirwar*, S. P. Mishra and Pramod Kumar
*Department of Biological Sciences, M.G.C.G.V.V., Chitrakoot, Satna, Madhya Pradesh, India
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Holarrhena antidysenterica a small tree used in the treatment of dysentery, diarrhea, helminthic, astringent and haemostatic disorders. Wrightia tomentosa a medium size tree widely used in the treatment of stomach ache, tooth ache, fever, hemorrhage, arthritis, snake bite and scorpion stings. Both the species belongs to the family Apocynaceae. The present study was undertaken to investigate stem bark of Holarrhena antidysenterica and Wrightia tomentosa for their pharmacognostical properties such as organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, powder characteristics, physico-chemical analysis, phytochemical screening, fluorescence studies and microbial limit assay for standardization of herbal drugs as recommended in Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India. Physicochemically, the loss on drying, chloroform soluble extractive, total ash, acid insoluble ash and water-soluble ash (2.83%, 5.98%, 12.13%, 1.33%, 10.89% respectively) were comparatively more in the stem bark of Wrightia tomentosa while water and methanol soluble extractives (23.33%, 28.45%) were more in stem bark of Holarrhena antidysenterica. The preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out in aqueous, methanolic and chloroform extracts which revealed the presence of alkaloid, resin and steroid in all extracts while starch was absent in all extracts. Tannin was observed in all tested extracts of Holarrhena antidysenterica but absent in all extracts of Wrightiatomentosa. The fluorescence study was carried out in ultraviolet light (366 nm) and day light for determining the chemical nature of drugs. The microbial profile of stem bark of both plants was developed to check the purity of the drugs. Findings revealed through pharmacognostical parameters of stem bark of both plants can help in identification of the plant with high medicinal properties and a suitable diagnostic tool for standardization as well as identification of adulteration.